Industrial hemp, a variety of the Cannabis sativa and the same plant species as marijuana, has been of interests as a potential renewable feedstock in recent years because every part of hemp can be used to produce a variety of industrial products. For example, its outer shell (bast) can be used to make fibers for textiles. Its flowering materials (e.g., flowers and leaves) are good sources for high-valued cannabidiol (CBD) oil, which can be extracted and used in medical applications. The hemp oil can be extracted from seeds for cooking and cosmetics. Although hemp has numerous potential applications, it is one of the most controversial plants by law and by perception, limiting research being done on. Understanding hemp genetics, potential hemp processing strategies, and challenges in hemp research is important not only to advance scientific knowledge but also to promote the public understanding of this misunderstood plant. This talk aims to bridge between the chemical structure of hemp and its applications by highlighting how spectroscopies can lead to designing catalysts for hemp upgrading.