Johannes Kepler, famous today for his three laws of planetary motion, had some pointed things to say about the structure of the universe of stars. Kepler’s ideas stand in contrast to what astronomers tended to assume about the universe. Kepler’s comments raise the question of where did our ideas about the universe come from? Did they come from science, or did they come from our own ideas and preferences? The science behind our ideas about the universe of stars is now very solid, but the historical origins of those ideas still matter.